Cancer is one of the deadliest terminal disease known to man, primarily when it is not detected early; cancer can be present in different part of the body. It is named after the part of the body, where it is located. It can be classified into benign or malignant depending on the distant metastasis of the cancerous cell.
The cancer cell of the blog is Laced Leukemia, which is a type of cancer that affects the leukocytes or white blood cells majorly.
Leukemia is a type of Blood cancer that affects blood cells. Usually, White blood cells and Bone marrow White blood cells are an essential part of your Immune system that fights infection, and bone marrow is where blood cells like these are made.
People with Leukemia have large numbers of abnormal blood cells, usual types of white blood cell, which take over the bone marrow and spill out into the bloodstream. Other areas that might be affected are Lymph nodes(glands), spleen, liver, testes, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, gums, and skin.
Leukaemia is divided into many different types – some who develop faster (acute leukemias) and others which develop more slowly (chronic leukemias). Each form of leukemia acts differently and will need to be treated differently. When you’re looking for information about leukemia, it helps to know the proper medical diagnosis so that you can find the right information.
Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two primary forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lymphoma occurs when cells of the immune system called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow and multiply uncontrollably. Cancerous lymphocytes can travel to many parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood, or other organs, and form a mass called a tumor. The body has two main types of lymphocytes that can develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).
T-cell lymphomas account for approximately 15 percent of all NHL in the United States. A similar lymphocyte called a natural killer (NK) cell shares many features with T-cells. When NK cells become cancerous, the cancer is called NK or NK/T-cell lymphoma and is grouped with other T-cell lymphomas. There are many different forms of T-cell lymphomas, some of which are extremely rare. T-cell lymphomas can be aggressive (fast-growing) or indolent (slow-growing).
Lymphomas are often, but not always, named from a description of the normal cell that leads to cancer. The general term peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) refers to the entire group of mature or “post-thymic” T-cell lymphomas (arise from mature T-cells), which distinguishes them from the immature T-cell lymphomas such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Under this broad meaning, almost all types of T-cell lymphoma fall under the category of PTCL.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant (clonal) disease of the bone marrow in which early lymphoid precursors proliferate and replace the regular hematopoietic cells of the marrow. ALL is the most common type of cancer and leukemia in children in the United States
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made.
The word “acute” in acute lymphocytic leukemia comes from the fact that the disease progresses rapidly and creates immature blood cells, rather than mature ones. The word “lymphocytic” in acute lymphocytic leukemia refers to the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which ALL effects. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children and can also be called childhood Acute lymphoblastic anemia, and treatments result in a good chance for a cure. Acute lymphocytic leukemia can also occur in adults, though the possibility of a cure is significantly reduced.
Causes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute lymphocytic leukemia occurs when a bone marrow cell develops errors in its DNA. The errors tell the cell to continue growing and dividing when a healthy cell would typically stop dividing and eventually die. When this happens, blood cell production becomes abnormal. The bone marrow produces immature cells that develop into leukemic white blood cells called lymphoblasts. These abnormal cells are unable to function correctly, and they can build up and crowd out healthy cells.
It’s not clear what causes the DNA mutations that can lead to acute lymphocytic leukemia. But doctors have found that most cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia aren’t inherited.
Less is known about the etiology of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults compared with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Most adults with ALL have no identifiable risk factors.
Although most leukemias occurring after exposure to radiation are AML rather than ALL, an increased prevalence of ALL was noted in survivors of the Hiroshima atomic bomb but not in those who survived the Nagasaki nuclear bomb.
Rare patients have an antecedent hematologic disorder (AHD) such as Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) that evolves to ALL. However, most patients with MDS that evolves to acute leukemia develop AML rather than ALL. Similarly, a small number of patients receiving lenalidomide as maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma have developed secondary ALL. 
Increasingly, cases of ALL with abnormalities of chromosome band 11q23 following treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors for another malignancy have been described. However, most patients who develop secondary acute leukemia after chemotherapy for another cancer develop AML rather than ALL
Risk Factors for Having Acute Lymphoblastic Anemia
There are different factors that increase the risk of having acute lymphoblastic anemia, the most common risk factors include:
1. Previous Cancer Treatment
Children and adults who’ve had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased risk of developing acute lymphocytic leukemia. People with previous cancer history and treatment are prone to having Acute lymphoblastic
2. Radiation Exposure
People exposed to very high levels of radiation, such as survivors of a nuclear reactor accident, have an increased risk of developing acute lymphocytic leukemia.
3. Genetic Disorder
Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia.
4. Family History
People who have a sibling, including a twin, with acute lymphocytic leukemia have an increased risk of ALL.
Epidemiology Of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer and leukemia in children in the United States. ALL accounts for 75% of pediatric leukemia cases. 
In adults, this disease is less common than Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) Approximately 1000 new cases of ALL occur in adults each year. However, because there are more adults than children, the number of cases seen in adults is comparable to that seen in children. ALL is slightly more common in males than in females.
Worldwide, the highest incidence of ALL occurs in Italy, the United States, Switzerland, and Costa Rica.
5 Signs and Symptoms in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
There are different signs and symptoms peculiar to children who have Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) often present with signs and symptoms that reflect bone marrow infiltration and extramedullary disease. When leukemic blasts replace the bone marrow, patients present with signs of bone marrow failure, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia
The signs and symptoms include:
- Osteological symptoms: Arthritis, Arthralgia, land imping.
- Lymphadenopathy: There is enlargement of lymph nodes and evidence of hepatosplenomegaly.
- Generalized inflammatory symptoms: High or Low fever, fatigue, petechiae, pallor, neutropenia, and bleeding
- Neurological symptoms: The neurological symptoms include a headache, vomiting, lethargy, nuchal rigidity, and masses in the abdomen, head, and neck. Symptoms of CNS involvement are rarely noted at initial diagnosis but are more common in T-lineage and mature B cell ALL. Testicular involvement at diagnosis is also rare; if present, it appears as unilateral painless testicular enlargement.
- Respiratory symptoms: The respiratory Symptoms includes stridor and respiratory distress, due to external medullary masses in the mediastinum.
Diagnosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Anemia
The diagnosis is classified into different types based on the type of diagnostic methods used, the types of Diagnosis includes:
Complete morphologic, immunologic, and genetic examination of the leukemic cells is necessary to establish the diagnosis of ALL.
The laboratory testing includes complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, serum b; blood chemistry, uric acid and lipoprotein levels, and coagulation studies.
Laboratory tests that help classify the type of ALL include the following:
To detect surface immunoglobulin on leukemic blasts (diagnosis of mature B-cell leukemia) or the expression of T-cell–associated surface antigens (diagnosis of T-lineage ALL)
To identify specific genetic alterations in leukemic blasts
Molecular Studies (FISH, RT-PCR, Southern Blot Analysis)
To determine translocations more rapidly and those not detected on routine karyotype analysis; to distinguish lesions that appear cytogenetically identical but are molecularly different
Minimal Residual Disease Studies
To detect chimeric transcripts generated by fusion genes, detect clonal TCRor immunoglobulin heavy-chain ( IgH) gene rearrangements, or identify a phenotype specific to the leukemic blasts
Genome-Wide Association Studies
To detect the presence of genetic changes where routine techniques are unhelpful (g., activated tyrosine kinase pathways in Ph-like ALL), not in clinical use yet
No other imaging studies other than chest radiography to evaluate for a mediastinal mass are routinely required in pediatric ALL. However, the following radiologic studies can be helpful:
To assess for testicular infiltration in boys with enlarged testes; to evaluate for leukemic kidney involvement as a risk assessment for tumor lysis syndrome
ECG, echocardiogram: To identify any preexisting cardiac dysfunction before administration of anthracyclines (baseline studies); to monitor heart function during treatment with anthracyclines
Lumbar puncture with cytospin morphologic analysis: To assess for CNS involvement before administration of systemic chemotherapy; to administer intrathecal chemotherapy
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: To confirm the diagnosis of ALL.
Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Anemia
1. Pharmacological therapy
Medications used in the treatment of pediatric ALL include the following:
- Antineoplastics (g., vincristine, asparaginase Escherichia coli, asparaginaseErwinia chrysanthemi, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, MTX, 6-MP, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide)
- Corticosteroids (g., prednisone, dexamethasone)
- Antimicrobials (g., TMX/SMP, pentamidine)
- Antifungals (g., fluconazole)
2. Non-Pharmacological Treatment
Other treatments involved in managing pediatric ALL may include the following:
- Initial administration of IV fluids: Without potassium, with or without sodium bicarbonate
- Cranial irradiation: Effectively prevents overt CNS relapse but potentially causes neurotoxicity and brain tumors; replaced mainly by intensive intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy
- Allogeneic HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplant): Usually following second complete remission after relapse (if early) or first remission in high-risk patients; potentially prevents regression and mortality chemotherapy alone.
3. Surgical Treatment
In general, surgical care is not required in the treatment of ALL. However, placement of a central venous catheter is needed for administering chemotherapy, blood products, and antibiotics, as well as for obtaining blood samples.
Top 10 Things You Should Know about Stem Cells
1. Multifunctional purpose
Stem cells sound controversial. Like the kind of thing, Frankenstein would be into. But they’re nothing to be afraid of. You can breathe a sigh of relief that while stem cells used in medicine and science continue to take the headlines, the stem cell technology used in skincare is not the same.
2. Auto Repair
Anything that is self-renewing has to be good news if applied in a beauty context. Self-renewing is exactly what stem cells are famed for. They can regenerate themselves. Imagine if your skin could regenerate and you’ll get why there’s such a big fuss about these little critters.
It’s no surprise that as we age, all our vital components age too. And that includes the stem cells we have in our epidermis. (They might self-renew but hey – they’re still only human)! Proactive skin stem cells are vital for a youthful appearance
4. Age Range
Your cells start to age in our early twenties, so if you thought you weren’t quite ready to get on board with aging. Think Remember that prevention is always better than cure.
5. Eliminating Wrinkles
Depending on which skincare line you’re using, and the potency of the stem cell extracts, you shouldn’t be surprised to notice that after a couple of months of use you can see the depth of wrinkles dramatically reduce.
6. Young Age
Healthy stem cells help us to look more youthful
7. It Contains Different Ingredients
Stem cells are made up of growth factors which are crucial for new cells to be produced and for new collagen and elastin to be promoted, and proteins which regulate cell division. Together they help to slow down the development of new wrinkles and fine lines.
8. Plant Source
It was discovered that stem cells in skincare come from one of two sources. Plants or humans. In the case where human stem cells are used, they’re derived from unfertilized Otherwise, they’re derived from plant extracts. In fact, most stem cell skincare is derived from plants – just be sure to check the ingredients.
It can be used in treating various diseases and boosting immunity
It is vital in the treatment and recovery of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a disease common in children, and more comfortable to treat when discovered earlier, early detection is the key to diagnosing and treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The most important treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is never to give up and keep fighting, just as Zara did in her fight against acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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Lukito, J. (2007). Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with protocol Hongkong–Indonesia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 97. Paediatrica Indonesiana, 47(2), p.88.
Pui, C. and Campana, D. (2000). The new definition of remission in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia, 14(5), pp.783-785.
Torpy, J. (2009). Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. JAMA, 301(4), p.452.
Zwerdling, T. (2017). Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Hematology & Transfusion International Journal, 5(3).