Endometrial carcinoma is a disease that affects the endometrium of the uterus. This is a condition in which there is a malignant growth in the uterus. This tumour growth has the usually spreads from where it originates to other parts of the body. One of the initial signs and symptoms of endometrial carcinoma is the vaginal bleeding. It’s important to know that this bleeding is not associated with menstruation. Other symptoms of endometrial carcinoma include pelvic pain, pain during sex, pain associated with urination and so on. Endometrial carcinoma usually starts in the innermost layer of the cells of the uterus. Endometrial carcinoma is usually detected at an early age, even before vaginal bleeding. However, this would only happen in places where women have easy and quick access to proper healthcare. About half of call endometrial carcinoma cases have been associated with obesity. This disease has also been connected with conditions like an excess amount of estrogen in the body, hypertension, also known high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and so. People who take estrogen-only have a high risk of developing endometrial cancer, while women who take a combination of both estrogen and progestogen have lower chances of being affected by the disease. This disease is mostly diagnosed by biopsy. It can also be diagnosed by taking samples of the endometrium during procedures such as dilation and curettage. Routine pap smear isn’t enough to diagnose the disease. The most predominant treatment procedure for this disease is by the complete removal of the uterus. This procedure is also referred to as abdominal hysterectomy. Other procedures that could be done for the treatment of this disease include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. Physicians can also buy stem cells online for the treatment of the disease. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better the prognosis.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Endometrial Carcinoma?
Some of the early signs and symptoms of endometrial carcinoma include vaginal carcinoma. This mostly occurs in women that have entered menopause. According to statistics, this occurs in about 90% of endometrial carcinoma cases. Other signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include vaginal discharge in postmenopausal women. Also, patients do complain of pain during sexual intercourse, and also pain during urination. Pelvic also happens, although patients rarely complain of this.
When To See A Physician?
It’s necessary to go see a doctor when a patient experiences symptom such as whitish or any other abnormal discharge from the vagina. In addition, other symptoms that could be presented include pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, and also pain during urination.
What Are The Causes Of Endometrial Carcinoma?
The exact cause of endometrial carcinoma is not known yet, however, there are some conditions that increase the risk of developing the disease. Some of these conditions include genetics, hormones and so on. Genetic mutations alter normal cells and turn them into irregular and abnormal cells. These cells turn out malignant and begin to grow without any control. They multiply more rapidly than healthy cells. These cells accumulate together to form a tumor. These tumor cells can migrate from where they originated to other parts of the body. This process is also known as metastasis.
What Are The Risk Factors For Endometrial Carcinoma?
Risk factors are conditions that facilitate the growth of a tumor. Some of the risk factors are;
- Hormonal changes: The ovaries normally secrete the female sex hormones. These include estrogen and progesterone. However, alterations or fluctuations in the level of the hormones would lead to changes in the inner lining of the uterus. Any condition that increases the level of estrogen in the body and not progesterone can lead to the development of endometrial carcinoma. Examples of such include conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, overweight or obesity, diabetes and so on. Also, women that have attained menopause, taking medications that contains only estrogen alone have a high chance of developing endometrial carcinoma. In addition, any a tumor in the body that increases the amount of estrogen in the body would also increase the risk of developing this disease.
- Obesity: Been overweight or obese increases the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. This might occur because the extra fat in the body can alter the hormone levels.
- Early menstruation: People who started menstruating at an early age, especially before the age of 12 have more risk of being affected by endometrial carcinoma. The more period one has, the more the exposure the woman has to estrogen, and the higher the risk of developing the disease.
- Pregnancy: Pregnant women have fewer chances of developing endometrial carcinoma. On the other hand, people who have never gotten pregnant before have a higher risk of being affected by the disease.
- Age: Endometrial carcinoma tends to women who have undergone menopause.
- Hormonal therapies: Endometrial carcinoma also tends to occur in people who have undergone hormone therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. People taking drugs such as tamoxifen should discuss the risk of developing the disease with their physician.
- History of colon cancer syndrome: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is a disease that affects the large intestine. This disease increases the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by a gene mutation. These mutated genes can be passed down from parents to their children. People that have been diagnosed with this disease, or that have a family member that has suffered from the disease should regularly check themselves for the presence of endometrial carcinoma.
How Is Endometrial Carcinoma Treated?
The kind of treatment needed for this disease depends on the staging and size of a tumor. The general health of the patient is also important before deciding which treatment procedure to follow. However, the most common ones include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and radiotherapy. Palliative care is also given to the patient.
Stem cell therapy and endometrial carcinoma
Scientists are working on identifying endometrial stem cells. These stem cells are responsible for the uncontrolled growth of endometrial carcinoma cells. This would significantly facilitate the treatment, and hopefully a stem cell cure for endometrial carcinoma in the nearest future.
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Hendarto, H. (2016). Thinking Out Loud On Endometriosis And Stem Cell Relationship. Journal of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, 2(1), pp.27-28.
Jacobson, T. (2011). Potential cures for endometrial carcinoma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1221(1), pp.70-74.