Exosomes are the next wave in the stem cell landscape. Cell products, without the cells themselves, are at the leading edge of regenerative medicine. Contact us to learn how to integrate exosomes into your practice today.

Exosomes are small secretory packets that control stem cell communication. As an FDA registered tissue facility, developing amniotic treatments and the next wave of natural, pharmaceutical grade, exosome based regenerative therapies in order to bring healing and wellness to a broad range of health challenges and disease.


Exosomes are 40–100 nm nano-sized vesicles that are released from many cell types into the extracellular space. Such vesicles are widely distributed in various body fluids. Recently, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in exosomes, which can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and subsequently modulate recipient cells. This suggests an active sorting mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, since the miRNA profiles of exosomes may differ from those of the parent cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in disease progression, and can stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate metastasis in cancers. In this review, we will introduce the origin and the trafficking of exosomes between cells, display current research on the sorting mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, and briefly describe how exosomes and their miRNAs function in recipient cells. Finally, we will discuss the potential applications of these miRNA-containing vesicles in clinical settings.

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What are Exosomes?

Signaling , Exosomes Release of microvesicles and exosomes therapy

Knowledge of the content of exosomes, and their role to in cell-to-cell communication by mediation of signal transduction, is of interest on two sides.

On one hand, exosome content can be a source of biomarkers. Exosomes are present in a variety of fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid, and they contain proteins, lipis, mRNA and miRNA. The study of disease-specific exosome content allows to find novel biomarkers to study the onset and progression of several diseases.

On the other hand, exosomes can be used as gene delivery vehicles, and their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties are encouraging their application for therapeutic purposes (1). However, much research is needed until we reach that stage. And your laboratory can be part of advancements related in this area.

Exosomes can interact with other cells by several means. One is interaction with membrane receptors on target cells. Another hypothesised mechanism is based on soluble ligands produced by proteolytic cleavage of exosomal membrane proteins. And the third mechanism is internalisation (2).

The discussion lies not so much in whether exosomes have an effect on cell signaling, as it is quite clear that they mediate signal transduction in both autocrine and paracrine fashion by the transfer of proteins and RNA (mRNA or miRNA). Rather, discussion lies in whether this effect is pathogenic or protective (3). Also, exosomes seem to be involved not only in pathogenic states and/or disease progression, but also on homeostasis.

Exosomes Doctor