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Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of the two types of lymphoma, which includes Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more prevalent than the non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This blood disorder can affect people of any age group, however, it’s more prevalent among people between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the cells in the lymphatic system develop abnormally, and might also move from where they are to other parts of the body. Some of the symptoms of this disorder include fever, loss of weighing and night sweats. Also, the patient would experience an enlargement of the lymph nodes, especially in the neck, axilla, and the groin. The most common and prevalent cause of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is Epstein-Barr virus, however, there are some other risk factors that could also cause the disease. Some of them are HIV/AIDS. This medical condition can be diagnosed by identifying the special and abnormal cell, called the Reed- Sternberg cells in lymph nodes. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a difficult disease to manage. However, there are some treatment procedures that are usually performed. They include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplant. Stem cells are harvested from the patient, frozen, then transplanted back after some procedures. Physicians also buy stem cells online.  The type of procedure that’ll do depends largely on the severity of the disease, and how advanced the disease is. It’s possible for this disease to be cured, especially when it’s diagnosed early. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better the prognosis.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?

People affected by Hodgkin’s lymphoma usually presents with a lot of signs and symptoms. Below are some of them;

  1. Lymph nodes: One of the most prevalent symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the painless enlargement of the lymph node. This might affect just one lymph nodes, and can as well affect more than one. The nodes usually have a rubbery texture, and swollen when touched, The nodes that are most affected are the lymph nodes of the neck and shoulder. The chest lymph nodes are also affected. All these can be detected by doing an imaging test, such as the chest radiograph.
  2. Night sweats: People affected by this disorder usually experience night sweats. This shares a similarity with one of the symptoms of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis is usually accompanied with bloody sputum. Tests should be done to differentiate the two diseases. This is one of the early symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  3. Loss of weight
  4. Enlargement of the spleen: This occurs in up to thirty percent of all Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases. However, the size of the spleen increases mildly and moderately. It’s rare for the spleen to become overly enlarged. The size of the liver may also alternate during the course of treatment.
  5. Liver enlargement: Although this isn’t a frequent scenario, it still occurs in about five percent of cases.
  6. Pain in the lower back: Patients often experience pain in the lower part of their back. This pain cannot be pinpointed to a particular part of the lower back.
  7. Pain associated with alcohol consumption: Lymph nodes usually becomes painful, especially after the consumption of alcohol. This occurs in a small fraction of those affected by the disease. The pain starts some minutes after alcohol has been consumed. Patients have described the pain as sharp, dull and stabbing.
  8. Symptoms of other systems of the body: A large portion of patients affected by the disease would present with general symptoms such as night sweats, fever, loss of weigh in an average of six months after the onset of the disease. Other symptoms are pruritus, tiredness and so on.
  9. Nephrotic syndrome: This disease is predominant in patients affected by Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It is mostly as a result of the minimal change disease.

What Is The Cause Of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?

The exact cause of Hodgkin’s lymphoma isn’t known yet, however, this development of this disease starts when a lymphocyte undergoes a genetic mutation to form an abnormal cell. This causes the cell to proliferate rapidly, more than the normal and healthy cells. The rapid rate of proliferation of the Hodgkin lymphoma cells is the reason why the disease spreads so fast and life-threatening, especially when it’s not well managed. These abnormal lymphocytes multiply rapidly and deposit themselves in the lymphatic system. Eventually, they tend to overcrowd and replace the healthy and normal lymphocytes in the lymphatic system. There are many types of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is diagnosed will determine the kind of treatment the patient would get.

What Are The Risk Factors For Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?

There are some factors that increase the risk of having Hodgkin’s lymphoma. They include the following;

  1. Family history: People that have a relative that was affected by Hodgkin’s lymphoma have a high chance of also developing the disease. This kind of people should go for regular checkups, especially when they notice any changes in their health.
  2. Gender: Gender also plays an important role. Generally, males are more predisposed to having Hodgkin’s lymphoma as compared to females.
  3. Age: Hodgkin’s lymphoma affects all age groups. However, it’s more predominant in people between the ages of 20 and 40, and people above the age of 55.
  4. Past medical history: People who have been affected by some type of infections in the past have a higher risk of having Hodgkin’s lymphoma. As an illustration, people that have had infectious mononucleosis in the past, are more predisposed to having Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

How Is Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Currently Treated?

Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be cured. However, this depends on the type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and the staging of the disease. Usually, the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. Some of the procedures used include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplant. In chemotherapy, drugs are used, which could be intravenous or oral, to eliminate the abnormal lymphocytes.

Stem Cell Therapy And Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

A bone marrow transplant is one of the most effective methods used in treating this disease.  Stem cells are harvested from the patient, frozen and kept till it’s needed. The next stage is to eliminate the eliminate the abnormal and cancerous cells of the patient through chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The new stem cells are then transplanted to the patient, to form entirely new cells.


Akhtar, S. (2017). High dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: Emerging questions, newer agents, and changing paradigm. Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy, 10(4), pp.272-276.

Crump, M. (2008). Management of Hodgkin Lymphoma in Relapse after Autologous Stem Cell Transplant. Hematology, 2008(1), pp.326-333.

Kahl, B. (2007). Dose-Intense and Dose-Dense Regimens in Hodgkin Lymphoma and Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Clinical Lymphoma and Myeloma, 8, p.S42.

Kako, S., Izutsu, K., Kato, K., Kim, S., Mori, T., Fukuda, T., Kobayashi, N., Taji, H., Hashimoto, H., Kondo, T., Sakamaki, H., Morishima, Y., Kato, K., Suzuki, R. and Suzumiya, J. (2014). The role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. American Journal of Hematology, 90(2), pp.132-138.