Lyme disease is caused by 4 species of bacteria. These include Borrelia Burgdorferi, Borellia Mayonii, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia Garinii bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonnii are the ones responsible for Lyme disease in the United States of America. This disease is spread by the bite of an infected tick. The most prevalent sign and symptom of this disease is a condition known as erythema. Erythema is a condition where there is an expanding area of redness on the skin of the individual. It’s usually not accompanied by pain or itch. Some of the initial symptoms of this disease include pain in the joints, neck stiff, serious headaches, palpitation, and the loss of the ability to move the face. Symptoms that might present later include pain and swelling of the joints. This disease cannot be transmitted from people to people. Only from the ticks to humans. Diagnosis is made based on the presenting symptoms of the patient. Others include the test for the presence of some certain antibodies, the duration of tick exposure, and so on. Lyme disease can be prevented by putting on long trousers and using insecticide to eliminate the ticks. An individual already bitten by ticks should be given medications. Antibiotics have proved effective in the prevention of this disease. Examples of drugs that can be used include doxycycline, amoxicillin and so on. Lyme disease that is left untreated, or treated poorly will affect many organs of the body. This includes the cardiovascular, nervous, brain and the neurological systems. Stem cell therapy and exosomes have proven effective in the treatment of this disease. These stem cells, usually gotten from the patient, are injected, where they travel to the damaged tissues, and try to repair or replace them
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Lyme Disease?
Lyme disease does present in three stages. These stages include early localized, early disseminated and late disseminated. The symptoms presented by the patient will depend on the stage of the disease the patient has;
- Early Localized Disease: This is the first stage of the disease. Patients in this stage of the disease would start manifesting symptoms between 1 to 2 weeks after the tick bite. One of the most common symptoms is the skin erythema. This appears as a “bulls-eye” rash. This rash indicates that the bacteria are replicating in the bloodstream of the patient. This rash may feel warm when touched, and it isn’t painful. This rash would disappear after about a month. However, it’s important to note that not all patients will present with this symptom. Some patients with a dark complexion usually do present with a rash that looks like a bruise.
- Early disseminated Lyme disease: This occurs some weeks after the tick bite. At this stage, the bacteria start to spread throughout the body. Patients present with flu-like symptoms. Example of these symptoms include;
- Problems with vision
- Sore throat
- Enlarged lymph nodes
Patients do have a general feeling of being ill. They might also present with rash, which may occur in areas other than where they got bitten by ticks. Some patients may also show signs and symptoms such as Bell’s palsy, numbness, and tingling. There are cases where the early localized disease and the early disseminated Lyme disease overlap each other.
- Late disseminated Lyme disease: This stage of Lyme disease happens when the stages 1 and 2 have not been treated. This stage can occur within weeks, months, and even years after they’ve been bitten by ticks. Some of the characteristics of this disease include the following;
- Serious headaches
- Encephalopathies which affects the mood, memory, and sleep.
- Difficulty in concentration.
- Numbness of the limbs.
- Memory loss
- Problems in making conversations.
What Are The Causes Of Lyme Disease?
Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria, Borrelia. The bacteria are transmitted through the bites of the Ixodes tick. However, the bacteria would only spread after the ticks have stuck to the person’s skin for more than 36 hours
Prevention Of Lyme Disease
- Vaccination: Lyme disease can render people incapacitated, and also cause long-term damages if left untreated for a long time. A recombinant vaccine has been made and has proven effective in the prevention of Lyme disease. According to statistics, it gives all children immunity against Borrelia Burgdorferi, while up to 80% of adults benefit from this. However, this vaccine is sometimes accompanied by some side effects.
- Hand removal: Ticks are difficult to identify, because of their small size, however, they should be promptly removed when they’re discovered on the body. This would be helpful only if they were removed before they’ve spent 36 hours in the skin. The most efficient way of destroying the ticks on the skin is to use tweezers. Tweezers should be placed close to the skin to pull them out, without destroying their body or heads. Some products have been developed specially for the elimination of ticks. This product was developed in Australia, and it works by spraying and freezing the ticks, instead of crushing them with the hand or tweezers. Freezing the ticks prevents them from injecting more toxins into the body.
What Are The Complications Of Lyme Disease?
Complications develop, especially when Lyme disease is left untreated. Below are some of the complications of this disease;
- Arthritis: This is the inflammation of the joint. This is more prevalent in the knee joint.
- Irregular heart rhythms
- Neurological problems
Stem cell treatment for Lyme disease
Lyme disease that is left untreated, or treated poorly will affect many organs of the body. This includes the cardiovascular, nervous, brain and the neurological systems. These presentations and conditions are difficult to manage. However, advancements have been in stem cell therapy, as regards the treatment of this disease. These stem cells, usually gotten from the patient, are injected, where they travel to the damaged tissues, and try to repair or replace them. Lyme disease stem cell therapy has no side effects and is considered safe for adults and children.
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Nichols, C. and Windemuth, B. (2013). Lyme Disease: From Early Localized Disease to Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 9(6), pp.362-367.
Weinstein, A. and Britchkov, M. (2002). Lyme arthritis and post-Lyme disease syndrome. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 14(4), pp.383-387.Get More Stem Cell Information at iSTEMCELL