Osteitis deformans, also known as Paget’s disease is a medical condition in which there are a cellular remodeling and deformity in the bones of the body. The bones that are affected by Osteitis deformans do present with signs of dysregulated bone remodeling, even at the microscopic level. This is accompanied by a significant breakdown of the bone and then an irregular disorganized new bone formation. As this progresses, the bone usually becomes fragile and prone to all types of injuries, such as fracture, arthritis and so on. Essentially, the bones are remodeled through this process. The cause of this disease is not known, however, research and studies have indicated that genetics and some other acquired factors could be the reason for the development of this disease. Paget’s disease usually affects one or more than one bones of the body. Some bones affected are the femur, vertebrae bones, and the pelvic bones. The disease does not affect the full skeletons of the body and does not move from one bone to another. The treatment of this disease usually varies in people. Stem cell transplant is an alternative to medications. This is because it presents in people with different symptoms. Drug therapy does treat the disease successfully, especially when medications are started before complications set in. It’s more predominant in old adults, and in people above the age of fifty-five. It’s also more common in the male gender than in women.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Osteitis Deformans?
The early cases of this disease are usually without symptoms. As a result of this, the majority of patients are diagnosed incidentally, especially during medical evaluation for another. The most common symptom of this medical condition is bone pain. Other signs and symptoms include the following:
- Lower limb: As new bone tissues are formed rapidly, bones of low quality are formed, which might eventually lead to leg deformities such as the bending of the knee. Patients might also experience pains and stress on the joints. Osteoarthritis might occur when the disease is not well managed.
- Vertebrae: A lot of complications can occur when the spine is affected by this disease. For example, the patient’s nerve roots can be compressed by the bones. They might experience some loss of sensitivities in some parts of their body. In addition, they can have pains and some tingling sensations in the upper or lower extremities.
- Skull: Abnormal growth of bones in the skull can lead to defects such as loss of hearing, headaches, and even compressions of some vital parts of the skull. As an illustration, some nerves that supply the nerve can be affected, which would lead to the loss of vision.
- Pelvis: This disease can also cause patients to feel some pain in the hips, and other bones in the pelvic region.
What Are The Causes Of Osteitis Deformans?
The cause of Paget’s disease is unknown, however, genetics and some acquired factors have been noted to often contribute to the development of this disease. Below are some of the causes of this disease;
- Infections: This disease may be caused by infections. A common cause of this disease is viral Some viral disease has been connected to the development of this disease. Some of them include the respiratory syncytial virus and paramyxoviridae viruses. Measles has also been identified as a cause of this disease.
- Genetics: Some genes have been identified to contribute to the development of Paget’s disease. According to statistics, about fifty percent of all cases of Paget’s disease is due to genetics. The people affected by genetics usually inherited the gene responsible for this disease from their parents. The gene is named the “SQSTM1” gene. The gene encodes for the protein that regulates the action of osteoclastic cells in the body. Osteoclast cells are cells that break down the bone tissues. Meanwhile, another set of patients have a mutation of “RANK”. RANK is a receptor on the osteoclasts, that is responsible for breaking down the bone tissues.
What Are the Risk Factors Of Osteitis Deformans?
There are some factors that increase the risk of having Paget’s disease. Some of these factors are;
- Gender: According to statistics, it has been noted that men are more affected by the disease, as compared to women.
- Age: This disease is more predominant in people above the age of 55. It rarely occurs in young people. Naturally, as people grow, the actions of the osteoclast cells surpasses that of the osteoblast cells. In other words, more bone cells are broken down, than the cells formed. However, Paget’s disease makes the situation worse.
- Race: It has been observed that this disease is more prevalent in Europe, especially in England. In addition, some cases have also been recorded in Scotland and Greece
- Family: People who have had a relative or sibling that got affected by this disease have a high chance of having Paget’s disease.
What Are The Complications Of Osteitis Deformans?
Paget’s disease is one that progresses gradually. Below are some of the complications that might occur when not well managed;
- Bone carcinoma: This occurs in less than one percent of people affected by the disease.
- Cardiac failure: Severe Paget’s disease may cause the heart to perform more than it usually does. This is because the heart would have to pump blood to more areas, as new bone tissues are being formed. The heavy workload might lead to heart failure.
How Is Osteitis Deformans Currently Treated?
The focus of the treatment of this disease is on reducing and possibly eliminate the pain and discomfort associated with it. Bisphosphonates, Calcitonin drugs are usually administered to this effect. In addition, surgery is performed on those that have had fractures, or severe cases of arthritis, and other bone deformities. Patients are also advised to consume more of food products that contain elements such as calcium, and Vitamin D.
Stem Cell Therapy Of Osteitis Deformans?
Stem cells are cells that can proliferate, and also regenerate. They are a special type of cells that can develop into many kinds of cells. Stem cells also have the ability to repair and replace dead tissues. These features make them useful and important in the treatment of Paget’s disease. These stem cells are extracted from the body, then made to undergo some processes. They’re then released back into the body, to correct the deformities, and also regulate the rate of bone remodeling.
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SHIMIZU, M. (2011). Origin of Paget’s cells in Paget’s disease. Skin Cancer, 26(1), pp.21-27.
Wagner, G. and Sachse, M. (2011). Extramammary Paget disease – clinical appearance, pathogenesis, management. JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 9(6), pp.448-454.
Wagner, G. and Sachse, M. (2011). Extramammary Paget disease – clinical appearance, pathogenesis, management. JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 9(6), pp.448-454.Get More Stem Cell Information at iSTEMCELL