Benign prostatic hyperplasia also is known as prostate gland enlargement. This disease is common in elderly people. This disease can cause a lot of discomforts. Some of the signs and symptoms include difficulty in passing out urine out of the bladder, loss of bladder control, urinary tract infections, bladder stones and chronic kidney problems. The exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not known yet. However, there are some factors that increase the risk of developing the disease. Some of the risk factors include diabetes mellitus, sedentary lifestyle, erectile dysfunction, obesity, family history and so on. There are also some specific medications that can worsen this condition. Examples of this kind of drugs include calcium channel blockers, anticholinergics, and so on. Benign prostatic hyperplasia can be diagnosed based on the signs and symptoms presented by the patient during examination by the physician. This disease is treatable, and some of the options include modification of lifestyle, medications, surgery in severe cases. Medications such as alpha blockers can also be used, such as finasteride, terazosin and so on. Surgery is done in severe cases, and this is done by removing the part of the prostate. It was discovered recently that stem cells play an important role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Researchers are presently working on ways to make a treatment out of this disease.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
The signs and symptoms presented by the patient depending on the severity of the disease. Some of the common symptoms are as follows;
- Frequent need to urinate: People affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia tend to have a strong urge to urinate.
- Dribbling at the end of urination
- People affected by this disease tend to urinate more at night. This condition is known as nocturnal urination.
- The inability of affected patients to empty their bladder.
- Patients might also have problems starting urination.
Some of the less prevalent signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia include the following;
- Infection of the urinary tract
- Inability to urinate.
- Hematuria: This is a condition in which there is blood in the urine.
It’s important to know that the size of the prostate doesn’t determine the severity of the disease. Some patients with relatively mildly enlarged prostates sometimes do present with severe symptoms, while those with really enlarged prostates do present with minor symptoms.
What Are The Causes Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
There are many causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia, however, there are 3 main causes that have been identified and well described. They include hormones, diet and degeneration.
- Hormones: The male sex hormones have been identified as one of the factors that cause the growth and abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland. The hormones do not directly cause this enlargement, but they have to be present for it to occur. An evidence of this theory is that castrated men do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia. As an illustration, research has shown that androgens have to be present for benign prostatic hyperplasia to occur.
- Diet: It has also been observed that diet plays a huge role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to a study carried out in China, it was observed that people who consumed a high amount of protein food, have more chances of developing this condition. As an illustration, it was discovered that men living in rural areas, had a low occurrence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This can be attributed to the low amount of protein they consume, as compared to the heavy protein diet men in the urban areas consume. This is one of the reasons why this condition is more predominant in cities than in rural areas. It’s beneficial to consume less of animal protein, to reduce the risk of developing benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- Degeneration of the tissues: This disease is age-related. There is a study that has shown that benign prostatic hyperplasia might be a result of the fibrosis and the weakening of the prostatic tissues. The tissues of the prostate gland are useful for the gland to function effectively.
There are other causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia other than the ones above. They are;
- Cancer of either the prostate gland or the bladder.
- Renal and bladder stones
- Infection of the urinary tract
- Problems with the nerves that control the bladder
What Are The Risk Factors Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
Some of the risk factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia include the following;
- Age: Benign prostatic hyperplasia tends to occur more in the elderly. Statistics have shown that this disease rarely occurs in people below the age of 40. However, about one-third of men present with moderate to severe symptoms by the age of 60.
- Family history: People that have relatives that have suffered from this disease tend to have a higher risk of developing benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- Diabetes mellitus: Research has shown that diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases do increase the risk of developing benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- Lifestyle: Overweight and obesity also increase the risk of developing this disease. On the other hand, participating in regular exercise can help lower the risk of the disease.
What Are The Complications Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
Some of the complications of benign prostatic hyperplasia include the following;
- Development of bladder stones: This occurs because bladder has the tendency to not empty completely in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Bladder stones, when formed can lead to other conditions such as bladder irritation, hematuria, infection and so on.
- Renal damage: This occurs due to the pressure in the bladder, which can also affect the kidney. Infections can also spread from the bladder to the kidneys.
- Urinary tract infections: This occurs due to the inability of the patient to Stem Cell Therapy And Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
- Researchers are presently working on ways to make a treatment out of this. Stem cell therapy could become a better alternative to the present method of treating the disease.
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Greenlight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia. (2017). BJU International, 119(6), pp.823-830.
Kring, D. (2012). Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Nursing, 42(5), p.37.empty the bladder.