The polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal disease that mostly affects women of reproductive age. This disease occurs as a result of an increase in androgenic hormones. Some of the signs and symptoms of this disease include menorrhagia, skin disorders such as acne, irregular menstrual periods, excessive growth and appearance of hair on the body, pain in the pelvic joint, difficulty getting pregnant, dark skin and so on. There are also some diseases that could occur along with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Some of them include diabetes mellitus, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular diseases, endometrial cancer, and so on. The ovaries may accumulate a small quantity of fluid in them. These formations are referred to as follicles. The main cause of this disease is not known yet. However, some factors have been identified to contribute to the development of the disease. Genetics and environmental factors play an important role in the development of the disease. Some of the factors that increase the chance of developing polycystic ovarian syndrome include lack or insufficient physical exercise, obesity, heredity. People that have relatives that had or has the disease have a high risk of also developing the disease. Physicians diagnose this disease based on two of the following; lack of ovulation, high amount of androgen, ovarian cysts. The presence of 2 of these 3 factors indicates that the patient has the disease. They also make use of ultrasound in diagnosing the disease. This disease has no cure, although treatments are given to help improve the symptoms. Lifestyle modification, such as loss of weight, and physical exercise is crucial in the management of the disease. Medications, such as contraceptives are also useful in regulating the menstrual period, abnormal hair growth, and skin disorders. The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women, especially women between the ages of 18 and 44. Stem cells obtained from Wharton Jelly has proved useful in the treatment of this disease. A lot of research has been ongoing, about the possibility of extracting stem cells from Wharton Jelly and used for the treatment of the disease. This method is better and a more effective alternative to medications. In an experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were implanted into the ovaries of an animal model affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome. It was realized that the ovarian and menstrual cycle of the animal was normalized, just two weeks after the implantation of the stem cells. Other symptoms such as insulin resistance and weight gain were also normalized. Stem cell therapy has a lot of potential for the treatment of PCOS if successfully replicated in humans.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?
The signs and symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome do present during the first menstrual period at puberty. Physicians make the diagnosis of this disease when the patient presents with at least two of the following symptoms;
- Irregular periods: People affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome do present with irregular menstrual periods. This is the most prevalent symptom of this disease. As an illustration, patients might have less than nice menstrual periods in a year. In addition, they might have more than 35 days, between heavy periods.
- Hormonal imbalance: Women affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome do have an abnormal level of male hormones. The excess amount of male hormones, also known as androgen is responsible for symptoms such as excess facial and body hair, skin disorders such as acne, and male-pattern baldness.
- Polycystic ovaries: Patients affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome do have ovaries that are enlarged, and contain follicles that surround the eggs. This abnormal features, cause the ovaries do not function well.
When Is It Important To Go See A Physician?
It’s important to go see a physician when you notice you have problems with your menstrual period. In addition, you should also contact your doctor if you present with symptoms such as excess hair growth, severe acne, and baldness.
What Are The Causes Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?
As earlier mentioned, the cause of the polycystic ovarian syndrome isn’t known yet. Below are some of the factors that are responsible for the development of the disease;
- Genetics: According to studies, it has been observed that polycystic ovarian syndrome might have a connection to some certain These genes when present, increases the risk of having this medical condition. In addition, people who have a sibling or a relative, that has had this disease, have a high risk of having this disease.
- Insulin: Insulin is a pancreatic hormone, that is needed before the cells can use glucose. However, there are cases when the body cells become resistant to insulin, this leads to the increase of sugar in the body, subsequently leading to a further surge in insulin levels. High levels of insulin in the body can also increase androgenic hormone production, which eventually alters the menstrual period and causes ovulation problems.
- Inflammation: It has been observed that women that are affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome usually have low-grade inflammation, which also induces and enhances the production of androgens. This can often lead to heart-related problems.
What Are the Complications Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?
Below are some of the complications of the polycystic ovarian syndrome;
- Fertility: This is one of the complications of this disease. Polycystic ovarian syndrome leads to the increase of androgenic hormones, leading to irregularities in ovulation and the ovarian cycle. In some cases, women stop ovulating entirely. Overall, this syndrome leads to infertility in women.
- Miscarriage and premature birth: Persons affected with this disease might deliver prematurely or have a miscarriage.
- Obstructive sleep apnea: Women affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome often present with this condition. This is because of the excess fat soft tissues in their throat, that obstructs their airway when they sleep. These fat tissues are developed as a result excess weight and obesity in women suffering from this disease.
Wharton Jelly Therapy
Stem cells obtained from Wharton jelly has proved useful in the treatment of this disease. A lot of research has been ongoing, about the possibility of extracting stem cells from Wharton Jelly and used for the treatment of the disease. This method is better and a more effective alternative to medications. In an experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were implanted into the ovaries of an animal model affected by the polycystic ovarian syndrome. It was realized that the ovarian and menstrual cycle of the animal was normalized, just two weeks after the implantation of the stem cells. Other symptoms such as insulin resistance and weight gain were also normalized. Stem cell therapy has a lot of potential for the treatment of PCOS if successfully replicated in humans.
Alanbay, I., Ercan, C., Sakinci, M., Coksuer, H., Ozturk, M. and Tapan, S. (2012). A macrophage activation marker chitotriosidase in women with PCOS: does low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS relate to PCOS itself or obesity?. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 286(4), pp.1065-1071.
Azziz, R. (2017). PCOS: Animal models for PCOS — not the real thing. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 13(7), pp.382-384.
Boardman, S. (2005). PCOS: bringing reproductive medicine to metabolic syndrome. Practical Diabetes International, 22(7), pp.260-260.Get More Stem Cell Information at iSTEMCELL