Polycystic kidney disease is a disease in which clusters of cyst develop in the kidneys. This makes the kidneys big, and also causes it to lose its function progressively. The kidney cysts are noncancerous, and they occur in different sizes. The cysts are usually filled with fluid, and they can develop in infancy, childhood or adulthood. Polycystic kidney disease is caused by a mutation of some genes, which produces a protein that impairs the tubule development. This disease can exist in two forms, which are autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Physicians diagnose this disease based on the signs and symptoms presented by the patient. Some of the signs and symptoms of the disease include pain new onset flank pain, redness of the urine, enlargement of the kidney when examined, and so on. This disease can also cause complications. Examples of complications that could occur as a result of polycystic kidney disease include frequent cyst infections, impairment of the renal function, and so on. Physicians manage this disease by prescribing medications. Antihypertensive are administered to the patient, such as angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin receptor blockers, and so on. Infections associated with the disease are also treated with antibiotics, Kidney transplantation could be done in severe cases. Stem cells are also used for the treatment of the disease. Stem cells are unique cells that can proliferate, regenerate, repair and replace damaged or injured cells and tissues of the body. This is what makes the therapy effective in the treatment of this disease. Stem cells extracted from the adipose tissues are usually used for this purpose. They are extracted from the patient and re-transplanted to the patient to induce other cells to repair the damaged part of the kidney.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Polycystic Kidney Disease?
Some of the signs and symptoms of polycystic kidney disease include the following;
- Hypertension: Patients affected by polycystic kidney disease might present with an elevated blood pressure.
- Patients might present with pains on their back, and also on their side.
- Patients might develop a sense of fullness in their abdomen.
- Hematuria: This is a condition in which there is blood in the urine.
- Patients might also develop kidney stones.
- Infections: Patients might develop an infection in the kidney or in the urinary tract.
- The abdomen of patients might also become enlarged due to the increase in the size of the kidney.
What’s the Cause of Polycystic Kidney Disease?
As said earlier, this disease is caused by a defected gene that induces the production of an abnormal protein. This protein generally impairs the development of the kidney tubule. There are two types of this disease, and these are autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. The cause of the disease is specific to each of them.
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: This is the most predominant type of polycystic Studies have shown that about one in ten cases of patients on dialysis were initially diagnosed and treated for this disease. This disease is more common in people between the ages of thirty and forty. However, children do get affected by this disease. This disease is autosomal dominant, which implies that only a parent is needed to have this disease, for the children to get affected. A child has a fifty per cent chance of having the disease even if one of the parents has the disease.
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: This disease is far less common when compared to autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. The signs and symptoms don’t usually present early until the child grows into adolescence. This disease is generally more predominant in children. It’s an autosomal recessive disease, so both parents must have the abnormal genes for the child to have a chance of having the disease.
What Are The Complications Of Polycystic Kidney Disease?
Below are some of the complications of the disease;
- Hypertension: An abnormal increase in blood pressure, is one of the commonest symptoms of polycystic kidney disease. This can lead to other serious complications, especially, when left untreated. Other diseases that might develop as a result of this include renal damage, and an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Pregnancy complications: Pregnant patients, affected by polycystic kidney disease usually do not have problems. However, there are some conditions in which they can develop preeclampsia. Women that are hypertensive before getting pregnant, have a high risk of developing this condition.
- Colon problems: Patients affected by polycystic kidney disease might develop pouches in their colonic wall. This condition is known as diverticulosis.
- Aneurysm in the brain: an Aneurysm is a condition in which there is a wall of the blood vessel develops a balloon-like bulge. This would lead to bleeding if it ruptures. People affected with polycystic kidney disease have a high risk of developing this disease.
- Impairment of the renal system: The gradual loss of the functions of the kidney is one of the most prominent symptoms of this disease. According to statistics, more than half of the people affected with this disease usually presents with renal failure by the time they attain the age of sixty. Some of the symptoms of an impaired kidney include the inability of the kidney to eliminate toxic materials from the body.
- Preeclampsia: Polycystic kidney disease increases the risk of which pregnant women can develop preeclampsia. This is a condition in which pregnant women experience proteinuria and hypertension during pregnancy.
Stem Cell Therapy of Polycystic Diseases
Stem cells are unique cells that can proliferate, regenerate, repair and replace damaged or injured cells and tissues of the body. This is what makes the therapy effective in the treatment of this disease. Stem cells extracted from the adipose tissues are usually used for this purpose. They are extracted from the patient and re-transplanted to the patient to induce other cells to repair the damaged part of the kidney.
Bible, E. (2013). Periostin is involved in cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis in polycystic kidney disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 10(2), pp.66-66.
McDonald, S. and Rangan, G. (2014). Progression of polycystic kidney disease—a lack of progress?. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 10(9), pp.489-491.
Pei, Y. and Watnick, T. (2010). Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 17(2), pp.115-117.
Role for GSK3β in polycystic kidney disease pathogenesis. (2015). Nature Reviews Nephrology, 11(4), pp.196-196.Get More Stem Cell Information at iSTEMCELL