Most people live a life full of expectations, tasks, day to day activities and functions needed to meet our ambitions, dreams and financial goals. These activities and tasks require a lot of energy to do them efficiently and correctly. Every part of our body needs the energy to function effectively. This energy comes from glucose, which is gotten from the breakdown of foods we eat every day. Now there is a new no finger-prick glucose monitor approved by FDA for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics.

Glucose is vital for the body to grow well and efficiently function. Glucose can be derived from processed foods such as carbohydrates, and from glycogenolysis by the liver when the body is low on glucose. The liver commences a process called glycogenolysis to supply the body with glucose. When there is too much glucose in the body, it is reduced by a hormone called insulin.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) over an extended period.  The excessive glucose can be due to reduced insulin or the cells of the body not responding to this insulin. Insulin is the hormone responsible for controlling the glucose level of the body.  This insulin hormone is produced by an organ called the pancreas.

Types of Diabetes

  • Diabetes type 1: This is the kind of diabetes that occurs as a result of reduced insulin. It is also termed insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM) because the etiology is due to reduced insulin production by the pancreas. It is common in younger people and called juvenile diabetes. The reason for the reduced production of insulin by the pancreas in unknown. When the insulin production is reducing, the decreasing glucose function of the body is impaired leading to hyperglycemia.


  • Diabetes type 2: in this kind of diabetes, the insulin production could be regular or relatively small, but the cells are not responding to the action of insulin, this phenomenon is called insulin resistance, this type of diabetes is called non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM), meaning that the etiology is not reliant on the quantity of insulin, somewhat reliant on the resistance of the cells to insulin. It is called adult onset, and the most common cause is obesity and living a sedentary lifestyle. If you don’t control your weight and live an active life, you’re at a risk of having diabetes mellitus type 2.


Risk Factors and Causes of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Genetics: Type 1 diabetes mellitus has been linked to genetic etiology. It’s been discovered that people with relatives suffering from type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of developing it as well.

  • Environmental factors: The type of environment we live in can increase the risk or chances of developing diabetes type 1.
  • Infections: Some infections specifically viruses such as enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, rotavirus, and rubella virus.
  • Chemicals and drugs: Type 1 diabetes can be caused by various chemicals and drugs such as anti-cancer drugs, streptozotocin, and diseases.
  • Gluten: Increased permeability of the intestinal mucosa to garden present in gluten, could predispose an individual to type 1 diabetes.
  • Family history: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is prevalent in people with relatives or family members previously diagnosed with diabetes, family history increases the chances of having diabetes mellitus.
  • Age: Type 1 diabetes is called juvenile diabetes because it is common in younger people, and it has an early onset. The disease is common and peaks at 2 particular type of age groups. Children between the age of 4-7 years, and children between the age of 10-14 years.
  • Geography: The chances of having type 1 diabetes increases as you travel away from the equator.

Risk Factors and Causes of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

  • Polyuria( excessive urination): This excessive urination is due to increased osmotic diuresis that occurs due to In children, this could present as nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting at night) due to osmotic diuresis and hyperglycemia.
  • Polydipsia(excessive thirst)
  • Polyphagia(extreme hunger)
  • Xerostomia
  • Fatigue: This is due to hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and increased catabolic state due to insulin activity deficiency.
  • Weight loss that cannot be explained
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis signs which include dry skin, heavy breathy, fruit like odor from the mouth, vomiting, polydipsia, polyuria, and vomiting.
  • Emotional instability: These various emotional irregularities can be in the form of irritability and moods. These symptoms are common in patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus.
  • Associated symptoms such as celiac disease and retinopathy: The retinopathy and blurred vision are due to the hyperosmolar effect on the lens and good humor of the eyes, leading to change in shape of the lens and blurred vision.
  • Gastro-intestinal symptoms: Type 1 diabetes mellitus could present gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flatulence, upper abdominal pain.
  • Muscle cramps: This is due to electrolyte dysbalance such as hypokalemia.

Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

Complications of Type 1 Diabetes

  • Cardiovascular damage: These damages could come in different forms such as atherosclerosis, heart attack or angina.
  • Neurological complications: Type 1 diabetes can lead to damage to nerves cells in the body. This could present as numbness, tingling sensation, and erectile dysfunction in men.
  • Nephrological damage: Type 1 diabetes can lead to end-stage kidney damage which would eventually need a kidney transplant or surgery.
  • Ocular damage: There could be the presence of ocular complications such as blurred vision, or loss of sight.
  • Foot complications: People who have type 1 Diabetes often suffer from a complication called diabetic foot or gangrene.
  • Dermatological or oral complications: Mouth blisters, skin breaking . and predisp[osytion of the skin to fungus infections are common complications of type 1 diabetes.
  • Gestational complication: Type 1 diabetes could endanger the life of a pregnant woman and her child, by causing blurred vision, miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital disabilities. And other dangerous conditions for both the mother and her child.

Diagnosis of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Fasting blood glucose: Fasting blood glucose more magnificent than seven mmol/l or 126mg/dl
  • Glucose tolerance test: Result indicating glucose higher than 11.1mmol/l or 200mg/dl
  • A1C test: This is done by calculating your average glucose over the course of 2 to 3 months.
  • Fasting plasma glucose: As the name implies, it is a glucose measured while fasting or on an empty stomach, only water is allowed 8 hours before the test is done.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test(OGGT): this is a test done in other to determine how your body metabolizes glucose, your glucose level is measured 2 hours before and after taking a sweet drink.

The normal blood sugar level is less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L)

140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates Prediabetes

200 mg/dL which is equivalent to 11.1 mmol/L,or higher after two hours may indicate diabetes.

  • Test for lipid profile: The lipid profile is examined to determine the degree of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein which are high indicators for atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. Diabetes type 2 is linked to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
  • Kidney function test: this is done by assessing the albumin and creatinine level to evaluate the function of the kidneys.

Diagnosis of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Lifestyle choices: Our lifestyle choices can predispose us to diabetes mellitus type 2, bad lifestyle choices like poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate sleep regime, and obesity (which is body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per meter square. Some specific diet choices such as excessive consumption of white rice, saturated and Tran’s fatty acids increase the risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2. You can eliminate these dietary causes by swapping white rice for healthier options such as brown rice and substituting the saturated fats for healthy saturated fats.
  • Genetics: this is due to the defect in a genetic chromosome, it is also called monogenic gene, and common in identical twins and involve in beta cell function destruction.
  • Medications: Some drugs can predispose an individual to diabetes type 2, such drugs, include drugs from the groups of beta blockers, statins, thiazides diuretics, glucocorticoids, and antipsychotics. Contact your doctor, before taking any medication.
  • History of the previous disease: People with underlying conditions or history of gestational diabetes, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, metabolic syndrome or cancer are predisposed to having diabetes type 2.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Risk Factors for Diabetes Type 2

  • Obesity and sedentary lifestyle
  • Fat deposits around the abdomen
  • Family history of diabetes
  • 45 years or older
  • More common in Native Americans and Asian-Americans.
  • History of pre-diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or gestational diabetes.

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2

Some type 2 diabetes patient can be asymptomatic, without symptoms, which is what makes it dangerous.

Some of the classics signs and symptoms include:

  • Polyuria (increase urination), polydipsia(increased thirst), polyphagia( increased hunger), and weight loss. These are the clinical trial of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Paraesthesia of the lower extremities
  • Yeast infection and balanitis in men
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state which leads to unconsciousness, seizures, and hypotension
  • Skin pigmentation
  • Reduced immunity which leads to frequent illness and delayed wound healing.
  • Headache
  • Body cramps
  • Emotional imbalance and mood swings
  • Irregular heart activity, sweating and trembling

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2

New No Finger-Prick Glucose Monitor Approved by FDA for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetics

In a diabetic patient, consistent glucose level measurement is the key to having a good body, and prognosis. However, continuous measurement of glucose level can become tedious or painful due to the pricking of the body needed during glucose level measurement. This painful procedure and method of measuring glucose level have discouraged people form constant blood glucose level measurement. Leading to various hazardous effects and consequences on the body of this patient.

The good news is that there is the latest development approved by the FDA. Which allows for prickles and painless monitoring of glucose level

This newly adopted device is called  Abbott’s  freestyle libre flash glucose monitoring system, it involves the measurement of glucose level through a waiver and a sensor placed on the upper arm. This device is better than the standard glucose meter because it eliminates the pain that comes with finger pricking while using a standard glucose meter.

This device is approved by the food and drug administration(FDA) for both type 1 and types 2 diabetes. Why pick a painful procedure, where you can use a painless process and get a better result. Measuring your glucose level should be painless and fun, Abbott’s device is your opportunity to get a painless glucose monitoring.

What is the Blood Glucose Monitor without Finger Pricking Approved for Age 18 and Over

The blood glucose monitoring device approved by the united state of America food and drug administration for Age 18 and over is the Abbott’s freestyle libre flash glucose monitoring system produced by the Abbott’s diabetic care inc. It was approved on September 27th, 2017.

What are the Benefits of Continuous Glucose Monitoring?

It has been discovered that continuous glucose monitoring systems(CGMS) help to maintain constant glucose level and prognosis in type 1 diabetic also shows the patient when the glucose level is critically high or low.

Are There Problems Associated with Continuous Glucose Monitoring?

Some of the concerns and setbacks for continuous glucose monitoring include:

  • Lack of universal back up by insurance companies
  • Unwillingness by youth to accept this technology
  • Lack of full support and back up of food and drug administration
  • Cost
  • Accuracy and precision
  • Lifetime of sensor
  • Calibration
  • Technical know-how needed by users
  • Inconveniency caused by the critical hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic level alarms
  • Interpretation of results

Are There Problems Associated with Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Doctor’s Recommendations for Monitoring Blood Sugar Levels

Doctors usually recommend the constant measurement of glucose level in diabetes patients because diabetic patients could suffer from various complications when in an hyperglycemic or hypoglycemic state.

It is also advisable to check glucose level, in order to determine the effects of change in diet, medication, or training routine. Constant measurement of glucose levels helps us to assess the impacts of these new variations on the body.

Diabetes can have a good prognosis when it is well managed and controlled. Continuous glucose level measurement is the key. Why go through a painful standard measurement when you can use a prick-less and painless Abbott’s device?  Why not try the new no finger-prick glucose monitor approved by FDA for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics? If you have any unusual symptoms, contact the nearest doctor.



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By Biotechnology on Incline