The brain can be compared to the engine of a car because it is the center of operation for most metabolic activities that happen in the body. The nervous system is responsible for regulating and controlling other systems in the body .it consists of the central and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain comprises of different neurological structures and neurotransmitters for the effective functioning of the brain .the spinal cord includes of different vertebrae (7 cervical,12 thoracics, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 caudal vertebrae). Anything that alters the normal and physiological process of the central nervous system leads to neurological disorders.

There are over 600, 000 neurological disorders that affect humans, the symptoms and treatment depend on the type of neurological disorders. The signs and symptoms could include a headache, blurry vision, confusion, loss of memory, forgetfulness, and can be treated conservatively or surgically.

5 Most Common Types of Neurological Disorder

There are numerous types of neurological disorders that affect people of different age group and social status. However, there are few common ones that affect the majority of the population irrespective of their gender and age group, The 5 most common neurological disorders include:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Epilepsy
  • a migraine
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease

It is a progressive neurological disorder that affects the brain cells especially in older women, it often leads to cognitive impairment, forgetfulness, and memory loss. It can be treated with various medications and prevented with an active lifestyle and Mediterranean diet.

The leading cause of Alzheimer’s disease is unknown, but science has proven that it is multifactorial diseases linked to a lot of risk factors such as obesity, genetic factors, environmental factors, obesity, and poor lifestyle choices.

Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease

There is no known linked etiology for Alzheimer’s disease. However, there are numerous factors that contribute to the sporadic spread of this medical condition. The risk factors include:

  • Age: The chances of having Alzheimer’s disease increases with age, it is more common in women above 60
  • Family History: People with family or relatives with a history of Alzheimer’s disease are more likely to develop this disease.
  • Poor Lifestyle Choices: Living a sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary choices could increase the chances of having Alzheimer‘s disease.
  • Past Trauma: Traumatologist has proven that patients with previous head trauma often develop Alzheimer’s disease in the future/ the head trauma disrupts the normal anatomy and physiological function of the brain. This disruption could predispose an individual to Alzheimer’s
  • Down syndrome: Most Down syndrome patients develop Alzheimer’s diseases over a period of it is one of the most common risk factors for Alzheimer ‘s disease

Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

There are numerous signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. The most common sign and symptoms include:

  • Memory loss:  Most Alzheimer’s patient often experience memory loss. They forget little things, events, dates, address, and misplace household items.
  • Thinking and Reasoning: Alzheimer’s patients often have difficulty performing intellectual tasks, their thinking and reasoning process has been altered and disrupted.
  • Poor Judgment: Most people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease often experience poor judgment They have a problem making the right decision, especially in stressful or tensed situations.
  • Performing Daily Task: Alzheimer patient often has difficulty completing a daily task such as bathing, cooking, and dressing
  • Personality changes: Most people suffering from Alzheimer’s experience personality and attitudinal changes such as depression, mood swings, apathy, delusion, and



Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the neuronal activity that affects the physiological function of the brain. The primary etiology is unknown, but there are numerous risk factors that increase your chances of having epilepsy. The symptoms range from uncontrolled jerking movements to loss of consciousness. It can be treated with different medications and surgery in severe cases.

Types of Seizures

Seizures can be classified as focal or generalized depending on the part of the body affected and the symptoms present.

  • Focal seizures without loss of Consciousness: This is also called simple partial seizures without any evidence of loss of awareness or consciousness. People affected by this type of seizures often experience uncontrolled jerking of the limb muscles.
  • Focal seizures with loss of Consciousness: This type of seizures is also called complex seizures, with most people experience loss of consciousness for a specific period of time.


Generalized seizures are seizures that are not limited to specific body parts and muscle groups. It can classify based on the symptoms presented. The types of generalized seizures include:

  • Absence Seizures: This is also called petit mal because it is more frequent in children. Most patient experience a brief period of loss of consciousness.
  • Tonic Seizures: This type of seizures is characterized by muscle stiffness and sometimes, the patients suddenly collapse or fall
  • Atonic Seizures: This type of seizures is also called drop seizures and characterized by loss of muscle control.
  • Clonic Seizures: This type of seizures is characterized by uncontrolled twitching in the arms, back, and
  • Myoclonic seizures: People are suffering from myoclonic seizures often experience brief periods of uncontrolled twitching in the limbs and back.
  • Tonic-Clonic Seizures: This also called grand –mal seizures by medical practitioners. It is characterized by muscle stiffness and uncontrolled jerking body movements. Loss of bladder control is also typical in this medical condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Epilepsy

There are numerous signs and symptoms of epilepsy depending on the type of seizures. The most common signs and symptoms of epilepsy include:

  • Confusion
  • Uncontrolled jerking movement
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Fear
  • Anxiety
  • Déjà vu
  • Staring Spell
  • Dizziness


A migraine is a neurological disorder characterized by a primary headache that lasts for about 72 hours. It is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to noise, sound, and smell. There are numerous signs and symptoms of a migraine depending on its severity. The most common signs and symptoms of a migraine include:

  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • A recurrent headache
  • Neck Stiffness
  • Hyperactivity
  • Frequent Yawning
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Increased sensitivity to sound, noise, and
  • Temporary loss of vision
  • Pulsating throbbing pain in the head
  • Eye pain

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder that affects the nervous system. The signs and symptoms include:

  • Numbness in the limbs
  • Loss of vision
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Slurred Speech
  • Tremor
  • Loss of Bladder Control

Parkinson ’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that primarily affects the motor system.The signs and symptoms include:

  • Constipation
  • Urinary Incontinence
  • Tremor
  • Rigidity
  • Bradykinesia
  • Poor posture

Neurologist near Me

Neurological disorders can be very dangerous and deliberate, especially when left untreated. The best thing to do when you experience any of the above symptoms is to contact the nearest neurologist near you.



(2018). Retrieved 25 April 2018, from

Sietske N. Heyn, P. (2018). Parkinson’s Disease 17 Early Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, StagesMedicineNet. Retrieved 25 April 2018, from