NSAIDs List And Recommended Usage
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs that are used to reduce and eliminate pain. This group of drugs can also be used to treat conditions such as fever, and to reduce inflammation, as they have strong anti-inflammatory properties. The most commonly used members of this drug family are aspirin and ibuprofen. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2, also known as COX 1, and COX 2. COX 2 is responsible for inflammation, fever, and pain. So, inhibiting the activities of this receptor relieves the patient of fever, pains, and inflammation. On the other hand, COX 1 produce prostaglandins that protect the lining of the stomach and intestine. In addition to this, COX 1 also produces prostaglandins that activate the platelets. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce and block the activities of the COX 1 receptor, which might eventually lead to bleeding, and the erosion of the gastrointestinal lining. This is the reason why nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are contraindicated in ulcer patients. An example of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that causes bleeding, and worsen ulcer is aspirin. It does this especially when it’s used for a long time. Most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be purchased over the counter, and they are safe to use, as long as the patient sticks to the prescription given by the doctor.
How Do Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Work?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs constitute different compounds, however, they have a general mechanism of action, and function, which is to reduce or eliminate fever, pain, and inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin. They work by reducing the activities of COX 1 and COX 2 enzymes. These 2 enzymes both enhance the secretion of prostaglandins, but they perform different functions. For example, COX 2 promotes inflammation, pain, and fever. On the other hand, COX 1 enhances the secretion of the prostaglandins that coats the gastrointestinal lining and platelet activation. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug acts by blocking the activity of the enzymes, thereby reducing fever, pain, and inflammatory reactions.
What Are The Uses Of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs?
Generally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for treating fever, pain, and inflammation. However, they are also used for the following conditions
- Back pain
- Inflammation of tissues, secondary to injuries or bruises
- Pain associated with menstruation
- Vasculitis diseases
- Pain associated with renal diseases, especially kidney stone
What Are The Contraindications Of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can have some serious side effects in people suffering from the following conditions;
- People who are above the age of 50, and who have a relative suffering or had suffered from any form of gastrointestinal problems.
- Individuals who have records of gastrointestinal reactions to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- People with irritable bowel syndrome.
- Individuals suffering from peptic ulcer disease, or any form of gastric or intestinal bleeding disease.
- Untreated cases of hypertension.
- People with a history of cerebrovascular conditions such as stroke.
- Renal diseases.
- Patients with a history of transient ischemic attack.
- Patients who are suffering from heart-related conditions such as the coronary artery disease.
- Individuals who have undergone any form of gastric surgical procedure.
- Patients who have had a myocardial infarction.
- Patients that are on Ibuprofen
- Individuals that have undergone coronary artery bypass surgery.
- Patients suffering from Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Both diseases are usually associated with bloodied However, this is more predominant in Ulcerative colitis. While Ulcerative colitis occurs mostly in the rectum, Crohn’s disease can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. In severe cases, it leads to the development of a fistula.
What Are The Side Effects Of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are one of the most commonly used drugs. This can be attributed to the fact that they can easily be bought over the counter, and have been useful in the treatment of common ailments such as headache, pain, and fever. However, people tend to abuse this drug, especially when they don’t get a quick relieve off their ailments. This has largely led to the reason why the side effects of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have become common. Below are some of the adverse effects of these drugs;
- Renal problems: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are usually used for the management of post-surgical pain and discomfort. However, it has been noticed that these drugs increase the risk of the development of renal diseases.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly the drugs that inhibit COX 1, tend to reduce the production and presence of prostaglandin in the stomach and the intestine, thereby exposing the gastrointestinal lining to ulceration. It has also been associated with other forms of dyspepsia.
- Interaction with other drugs: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do often interact with other drugs. As an illustration, when Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs concurrently with quinolones, there are increased chances of it leading to the suppression of the central nervous system.
- Sexual dysfunction: This is more predominant in men. According to studies, it has been observed that men who used Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs regularly are more prone to having erectile dysfunction.
Examples Of NSAIDs And Their Uses
- Aspirin: Aspirin is one of the most popular Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It can be bought over the counter without a prescription. This drug works by inhibiting COX 1 and COX 2, thereby leading to the reduction of inflammation, fever, and It can be used for the treatment of arthritis, menstrual pain, and fever. However, it’s side effect is that it can cause bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Although, its benefits are more than the side effects.
- Celecoxib: This drug is a COX-2 inhibitor, and can is used for the treatment of pain and inflammation. The drug is an alternative to aspirin, especially for those who have had an ulcer, or prone to gastric bleeding.
- Ibuprofen: This is also one of the most commonly used NSAIDs. It has brand names such Advil, medipren It’s used for the treatment of mild and moderate pain, fever, and inflammation. It has some side effects such as constipation, heartburn, rash and so on.
- Indomethacin: This is a prescription drug and can be used for the treatment of pain, inflammation, and It is efficient in the treatment of menstrual pain, arthritis, fever and so on. Its side effects are stomach upset, fatigue, dizziness, heartburn and so on.
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